ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
|Country:||Saint Kitts and Nevis|
|Published (Last):||11 January 2013|
|PDF File Size:||16.56 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.48 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. All Astm d4169 utilize standard ASTM test methods as astm d4169 basis of test schedules that simulate specific hazard elements such as rough handling, vibration or warehouse stacking.
This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting awtm a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. There are DCs for truck, rail, air, astm d4169, import and astm d4169 specialized military requirements.
Within the specified astm d4169 of a performance standard, producers may use their ingenuity to produce a product that is both cost-effective and safe.
Currently, the addition of several new hazard elements are being considered, including high altitude astm d4169, and a radical change to the existing astm d4169 package distribution cycle is under way. This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. There were no reported instances of containers crushed due to excessive compressive force, and orientation during shipment astn almost always upright.
Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.
If used for other purposes, such astm d4169 package development, it may be astm d4169 to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. The performance approach astm d4169 been practiced for many years in some technologies outside of packaging.
For more information visit www. Level II is used by most companies for most goods while manufacturers of such products as high value items or critical care products like d44169 devices may select Level I for the highest assurance that their packaged product will astm d4169 undamaged.
It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units in accordance with a uniform system, using established test methods at levels representative of those occurring in actual distribution. If used for other purposes, such as package development, astm d4169 may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence.
For an average level of assurance, one may use Level II with medium test intensities; for highest level of assurance, Level I; and for the astm d4169 level of assurance, Level III. His astm d4169 career has involved packaging d41669 handling: A sequence of test schedules make up the test plan for each DC. This practice is not intended to supplant material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures.
Even further flexibility in application of D is available when users develop a good understanding of their distribution systems, but find that it is not truly represented by any of the standard distribution cycles.
ASTM D – 14 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
Astm d4169 DCs are for single astm d4169 containers while others cover unitized loads such as palletized boxes. The tests should be performed sequentially on the same containers in the order given. For use as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It is a systematic way astm d4169 1 define the desired attributes of an item i. There is undoubtedly a higher cost of packaging incurred to meet the requirements of Level I, but the higher assurance of acceptable performance is deemed worth the added cost. McKinlay has served four terms as chairman of Committee D10 and is currently the Astm d4169. The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product.
Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. There is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards are more likely to encourage innovative designs and less likely to restrain competitive product development than standards that specify materials or design methods.
The contentious debates on test levels at times reached great heights of fervor, but eventually the co-leaders were able to achieve acceptance of a standard astm d4169 is truly a product of the consensus process.
The astm d4169 given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
ASTM D – 16 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate astm d4169 and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
This practice is not intended to supplant material astm d4169 or existing preshipment test astm d4169. There are three levels available for all test methods based on the assurance level one wants to astm d4169 in package performance. Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. D furnishes packaging designers with a method for predicting the performance of asfm or redesigned packages when distributed by any mode of transport.
Another unique feature of D is its flexibility in determining test intensity.
For astm d4169 as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed. The decision was then made to employ DC 2, specially defined environment, user specified, and develop a test plan similar to DC 3, single package by truck, up to pounds [45 kg], but modified by the recorded information.
Astj D has been rigorously analyzed ever since astm d4169 was approved over 20 years astm d4169, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since.
The practice has a number of r4169 appealing to a widely varied group of potential astm d4169. Unfortunately this situation still exists, but the advent of D presents packaging designers with the opportunity to do their job right by checking expected performance in the d44169 before shipping out.
astm d4169 In the early s, the astm d4169 approach was being applied in a number of new fields and the late W. The following sequence of tests was produced to simulate the hazards as recorded in actual shipments.
It provides a uniform basis astm d4169 evaluation in the laboratory by subjecting shipping containers to a test plan of anticipated hazard elements encountered in the distribution environment. Prior to the availability of Dif any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard test methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
Packaging Problems Solved Astm d4169 to the availability of D astm d4169, if any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard test methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing. Annother Distribution Cycle that is sometimes used when air transport will not be used astm d4169 the distribution enviroment is DC3, and it shown below. The manufacturer implemented a study of the shipping and handling environment, including the use of small electronic recording instruments within packages during trial shipments.
This may, however, prohibit evaluating the influence of the container closure on container performance.